The Press Office Director explained where those participating in and attending the Mass were to be located. “On the left-hand side of the ‘Sagrato’ (porch of the Basilica) will be seated bishops and archbishops (around 250 are expected), ecclesiastics, and delegations from other Churches and Christian confessions. On the right-hand side of the ‘Sagrato’ will be delegations from various countries lead by heads of state, ministers, etc. On the St. Peter’s statue side of the piazza will be seated Jews, Muslims, and members of other religions, then around 1200 priests and seminarians. On the St. Paul’s statue side of the piazza will be seated the diplomatic corps accredited to the Holy See and other civil authorities. The rest of the piazza will be standing-room for all those without tickets. A large number is expected to attend.”
Between 8:45 and 8:50am the Pope departs the Domus Sanctae Marthae and starts to move through the crowd in the various sections of the piazza—either in the Jeep or the Popemobile—and greets those gathered. He returns to the Sacristy, via the Pietà side, around 9:15am. Mass is planned to begin at 9:30am (8.30am GMT)
Regarding the beginning of the ceremony, the Pope, enters the Basilica, heads to the Confession (St. Peter’s tomb under the high altar) while trumpets announce the “Tu es Petrus”. The Pope venerates the tomb of St. Peter, together with the Patriarchs and Major Archbishops of the Eastern Rite Catholic Churches (ten in number, four of whom are cardinals). He is then presented with the Pallium, Ring, and Book of the Gospels that were placed at St. Peter’s tomb the night before.
The Holy Father then comes back up from the Confession to the main floor of the Basilica, from which the procession continues. The “Laudes Regiae” (Christ is King) is chanted, with some invocations taken from the Vatican II document on the Church, “Lumen Gentium”. In the Litany of Saints are particularly to be noted, after the Apostles, the Holy Roman Pontiffs who have been canonized up to the most recent: St. Pius X. These are only the pontiffs who have been named as saints, not those who have been beatified. The procession will then make its entrance into the square.
Concelebrating the Mass with Francis: all the cardinals present in Rome, joined by the Patriarchs and Major Eastern Rite Archbishops (6); the Secretary of the College of Cardinals; and two Superior Generals (that of the Order of Friars Minor, Jose Rodriguez Carballo and that of the Jesuits, Adolfo Nicolas Pachon, respectively President and Vice-President of the Union of Superior Generals). In total about 180 concelebrate and they are seated at the left (that is, in front of the ecclesiastics, not the national delegations).
Before the Mass begins there are the rites specific to the beginning of the Bishop of Rome’s Petrine Ministry. These include:
The Imposition of the Pallium:
Made of lamb’s wool and sheep’s wool, the Pallium is placed on the Pope’s shoulders recalling the Good Shepherd who carries the lost sheep on his shoulders. The Pope’s Pallium has five red crosses while the Metropolitans’ Palliums have five black crosses. The one used by Francis is the same one that Benedict XVI used. It is placed on the Pope’s shoulders by Cardinal proto-deacon Tauran and, after the imposition, there is a prayer recited by Cardinal proto-presbyter Daneels.
The Fisherman’s Ring:
Peter is the fisherman Apostle, called to be a “fisher of men”. The ring is presented to the Pope by Cardinal Deacon Sodano (first of the Order of Bishops). It bears the image of St. Peter with the keys. It was designed by Enrico Manfrini. The ring was in the possession of Archbishop Macchi, Pope Paul VI’s personal secretary, and then Msgr. Malnati, who proposed it to Pope Francis through Cardinal Re. It is made of silver and gold.
Six cardinals, two from each order, among the first of those present approach the Pope to make an act of obedience. Note that all the Cardinal electors already made an act of obedience in the Sistine Chapel at the end of the Conclave and that all the cardinals were able to meet the Pope in the following day’s audience in the Clementine Hall. Also, at the moment of “taking possession” of the Cathedral of Rome—St. John Lateran— the act of obedience is made by representatives of the various members of the People of God.
The Mass is that of the Solemnity of St. Joseph, which has its own readings (therefore they are not directly related to the rite of the Inauguration of the Pontificate). The Gospel is proclaimed in Greek, as at the highest solemnities, to show that the universal Church is made up of the great traditions of the East and the West. “Latin,” Fr. Lombardi said, “is already abundantly present in the other prayers and Mass parts.”
The Pope gives his homily in Italian.
Fr. Lombardi said that the Master of Celebrations expected that the ceremony would not last much more than two hours and, always with the intention of simplification and not making the rite overly long, there would not be an Offertory procession. The Eucharistic gifts would be brought to the altar by the ministers who prepare the altar. Also, the Pope would not distribute Communion, which would be done by the deacons on the “Sagrato” and, in the various areas of the piazza, by priests.
Regarding the music for the ceremony, several moments are notable. When the Pope enters the Basilica silver trumpets will ring out the “Tu es Petrus”. The Laudes Regiae is chanted during the procession from St. Peter’s tomb to the “Sagrato”. A 14 piece brass ensemble plays at various moments of the celebration. During the Offertory the “Tu es pastor ovium” (You Are the Shepherd of the Sheep) motet composed by Pierluigi da Palestrina precisely for the Inauguration of the Pontificate is sung. At the conclusion, the “Te Deum” is sung with verses alternating between Gregorian chant and a melody by Tomas Luis de Victoria. As it is not being held on a Sunday, there is no Angelus after the Mass.
At the end of the celebration, and after removing the Liturgical vestments, the Pope then goes to the Basilica’s high altar, before which he greets the heads of the official delegations from various countries who pass before him. He will then go to the Domus Sanctae Marthae for lunch.
Other delegations staying in Rome can meet with Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, S.D.B., secretary of State of His Holiness, and Archbishop Dominique Mamberti, secretary for Relations with States Wednesday (for example, the President of Brazil in light of the upcoming World Youth Day). As is known, the Pope will receive delegations of the Christian Churches and Ecclesial Communities and of other religions in audience on Wednesday.
The main delegations expected to attend:
– 33 delegations representing Christian Churches and Ecclesial Communities (14 Oriental; 10 Western; 3 Christian organizations; others). Among those present: Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I; Supreme Patriarch and Catholicos of all Armenians Karekin II; Metropolitan Hilarion of the Patriarchate of Moscow; many Metropolitans; Anglican Archbishop Sentamu; Secretary of the World Council of Churches Fykse Tveit:
Sixteen members of important Jewish delegations including: the Jewish community of Rome; international Jewish committees; the Chief Rabbinate of Israel; the World Jewish Congress; the Anti-Defamation League.
Also delegations of Muslims, Buddhists, Sikhs, Jainists.
Delegations of various sizes and levels from 132 countries confirmed their attendance.
“The delegations,” Fr. Lombardi emphasized, “are coming to Rome following information of the event made public by the Secretary of State. There were no ‘invitations’ sent out. All wishing to come are warmly welcomed. It must be made clear that no one has privileged status or will be refused. The order will depend on protocol and the level of the delegation.”
Papal Coat of Arms:
The last topic that Fr. Lombardi covered was the now pontiff’s papal coat of arms and motto. These are the same that he used as bishop. The shield has a bright blue background, at the centre top of which is a yellow radiant sun with the IHS christogram on it representing Jesus (it is also the Jesuit logo). The IHS monogram, as well as a cross that pierces the H, are in red with three black nails directly under them. Under that, to the left, is a star representing Mary, Mother of Christ and the Church. To the right of the star is a nard flower representing Joseph, Patron of the Universal Church. With these symbols the Pope demonstrates his love for the Holy Family.